ERIC Number: ED307218
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Mar-30
Reference Count: N/A
A Myriad of Values: A Brief History.
Hodge, R. Lewis
U.S. public education has always been value laden, and a straightforward approach concerning what values will be taught is an appropriate policy. In spite of U.S. pluralism, a relatively common set of traditional values is possible and desirable. Three assumptions have been accepted in this essay: (1) no one lives a value-neutral life; (2) teachers do teach values; and (3) moral and value education has content and process dimensions. The 1950's are often cited as a desirable pattern of "traditional" public schooling. Public schools were probably the most common vehicle for transmitting U.S. values in view of the diversity of ethnic groups and religions. In the aftermath of Sputnik, U.S. education became inquiry or discovery based encouraging students to question existing knowledge, formulate new theories, and analyze data. The 1960's are often viewed as lamentably as the 1950's are memorably. The Vietnam War overshadowed U.S. thought, forcing people to question themselves and their government. The process of values clarification became popular, although it was, and is, controversial. Questions of what and how to teach, and issues such as value-neutral instruction continue to plague these programs. The 1970's saw the "back to basics" movement gain prominence. Piagetian and other behavioral and cognitive psychology were used as a basis for this movement. Finally, the 1980's brought general conservatism to the development and implementation of curriculum. There is an emphasis on accumulating facts and practicing basic skills. Since 1900, the United States has moved toward a plurality of values which may be detrimental to the nation's future. A 27-item bibliography is included. (GEA)
Descriptors: Back to Basics, Basic Skills, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Discovery Learning, Educational History, Educational Improvement, Elementary Secondary Education, Inquiry, Public Schools, Values, Values Clarification, Values Education
R. Lewis Hodge, Claxton Hall, Suite 10, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A