ERIC Number: ED306710
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1988-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
The Social Context of Research Design: From Theory to Practice in the Care and Education of Retarded Individuals.
Zigler, Edward F.
This paper examines the issues of deinstitutionalization and mainstreaming from a historical perspective, focusing on the changes over time in views and practices toward retarded individuals and the role of science in the mental retardation field. The parallel development of residential programs and special education programs for individuals with mental retardation is described; and movements toward deinstitutionalization, normalization, and mainstreaming are examined. Excessive concern with the physical settings of services is cited, with the recommendation that the actual social and psychological characteristics within each individual setting be considered. The paper proposes that: (1) services should be matched to each person's needs, regardless of setting which might include the large institutions; (2) such large institutions should train new generations of professionals to work with retarded persons; and (3) large institutions which continue to be used should be humanized. Following the speech is a transcript of a question-and-answer period. It deals with the phenomenon of the decreasing numbers of children labeled as mildly mentally retarded, the state of the existing knowledge base in mental retardation research, and the need for regular education teachers to receive special training before mainstreaming occurs. (JDD)
Descriptors: Adults, Deinstitutionalization (of Disabled), Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Mainstreaming, Mental Retardation, Normalization (Handicapped), Preschool Education, Research Design, Residential Programs, Social Environment, Special Education, Theory Practice Relationship, Trend Analysis
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Descriptive; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners; Researchers
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: In: Research in Education of the Handicapped. Project Directors' Meeting (3rd, Washington, DC, July 10-12, 1988) Proceedings; see EC 212 771.