ERIC Number: ED304595
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1988-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Metamemory and Individual Differences in Verbal and Spatial Recall.
Maiden, Patricia M.; Maiden, Robert J.
Although metamemory has recently received renewed interest by several investigators, individual differences in memory skills have received little if any attention. While individual differences in memory skills have common sense validity, these differences have been difficult to document experimentally. This study used a repeated measures design to correct for this problem. College students (N=158) completed Maiden's Metamemory Scale, a questionnaire which tests self-knowledge of preferred strategic encoding style. On the basis of their performance on this scale, 19 subjects were identified as verbalizers and 12 subjects were identified as imagers. These 31 subjects who showed a clear preference for either verbal or spatial encoding strategies were asked to remember two short stories using their preferred and non-preferred strategy. Both instructions and story order were randomly assigned. The results indicated that individual differences in encoding styles and metamemory for these encoding styles existed. Traditional models of memory were unable to adequately explain the findings. The findings suggest a multimodal model of memory in which intra-individual differences exist and support the possibility that individuals could be effectively trained in their superior memory mode. (Maiden's Metamemory Questionnaire is appended.) (NB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (96th, Atlanta, GA, August 12-16, 1988).