ERIC Number: ED304505
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1988
Reference Count: 0
Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.
Figart, Deborah M.
Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women are being affected differently by changes in macroeconomic trends. Within and across industries, women are still concentrated in clerical, sales, service, and light manufacturing jobs. Women made minor gains moving into management and the professions, but mostly into predominantly female categories and/or low-paying jobs. Although these gains have been somewhat higher for younger women, the evidence is inconclusive as to whether these advances will continue over their working lives and for succeeding generations. Even where occupational desegregation by sex has occurred, men and women in the same occupation continue to work in different establishments or departments and have different pay scales. Median incomes are inversely related to the percentage of females in an occupation; internal labor markets can be used as a lens to evaluate the extent of sex segregated career tracking and the disproportion of men at the top of the career ladder, even in female-dominated occupations. The wage gap has not declined despite women's increased education, experience, and tenure because women face different opportunity structures than do men. Policy options are recommended. Data are presented on 22 tables and figures. A 47-item list of references is included. (Author/ BJV)
Descriptors: Comparable Worth, Employed Women, Employment Level, Employment Patterns, Employment Statistics, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Labor Market, Males, Salary Wage Differentials, Sex Differences
American Association of Retired Persons, 1909 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20049 (Stock No. D13047, free).
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.