ERIC Number: ED303921
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1988-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
The Measurement of Educational Efficiency and Effectiveness.
Lockheed, Marlaine E.
This paper provides a conceptual framework for addressing the issue of effectiveness and efficiency in education. It considers alternative criteria for identifying efficiency and discusses constraints on improving efficiency. The first section distinguishes efficiency from effectiveness, and also distinguishes "internal" from "external" efficiency and effectiveness. The inputs of the system determine whether the term "efficiency" or "effectiveness" is to be used; the outputs determine whether the descriptors "internal" or "external" are applied. In most cases, nonmonetary inputs imply effectiveness, while monetary inputs imply efficiency; similarly, nonmonetary outputs imply internality and monetary outputs imply externality. Three issues are indirectly related to the measurement of effectiveness and efficiency: the broader consequences of education, equity considerations, and specification of qualitative versus quantitative outputs. Constraints on improving efficiency include inadequate knowledge about internal effectiveness, inadequate knowledge about costs of inputs, and difficulty in obtaining appropriate information. References are included. (TE)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1989).