ERIC Number: ED301934
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Efficacy and Accountability in Organizations.
Reitzug, Ulrich C.
This study examined the relationship among accountability, efficacy, and organizational effectiveness by integrating findings from 17 research and development reports on Management by Objectives (MBO), an intervention that incorporates elements and processes of both accountability (goal-setting, measuring and monitoring, feedback) and efficacy (subordinate participation and interaction with supervisors). Findings from the reports were qualitatively integrated using propositional analysis, a technique that traces findings, generalizations, and recommendations and recasts them in ways that are relevant to the study. While these findings indicate a generally positive effect of MBO on productivity and attitudes, the study revealed four elements and processes in MBO that have been linked with efficacy: participation, interaction between supervisors and subordinates, managerial support, and positive reinforcement. While MBO programs generally lead to improved productivity and attitudes, several factors leave the cause of the gains open to interpretation: the frequent absence of control groups, a failure to note specific management philosophy behind each MBO program, a lack of description of the implementation process and its effects, and a lack of detail about day-to-day decision making and its effects. A 24-item bibliography is included and 10 tables from the study are appended. (TE)
Descriptors: Accountability, Comparative Analysis, Elementary Secondary Education, Employer Employee Relationship, Feedback, Management by Objectives, Management Systems, Meta Analysis, Organizational Communication, Organizational Development, Organizational Effectiveness, Organizational Objectives, Personnel Evaluation, Productivity
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Washington, DC, April 20-24, 1987).