ERIC Number: ED301366
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-Oct-17
Reference Count: N/A
Effective Rural Schools: Where Are We? Where Are We Going? How Do We Get There?
This paper reviews current educational research and philosophy on effective school characteristics and discusses how to put them into practice. Prevailing beliefs among educators have advanced from "there are good and poor learners" to "there are faster and slower learners" and now to "most students are similar in learning ability, rate, and motivation, when provided with favorable learning conditions." Cognitive and affective entry behaviors account for about 75% of differences in student learning outcomes. Therefore, instructional quality has little chance of overcoming the effects of entry behaviors unless the instruction takes into account cognitive or affective deficiencies. It follows that effective schooling should involve high expectations of students' performance, instructional assignments based on continuous assessment of student learning, consideration of the role of self-concept, sharing by staff and students of responsibility for successful learning outcomes, and varied time for learning according to student needs and task complexity. The paper presents: (1) Cruickshank's listing of leadership, efficacy, and efficiency dimensions of effective schools; (2) Stutz's comparison of the "model" change process concepts of the 1950s with those now found to be more effective; (3) Champlin's critical factors in organizational change, and basic components of a comprehensive plan for change; and (4) necessary changes in instructional process, curriculum organization, intentional school and classroom practices, and organizational structures. Contains 23 references. (SV)
Descriptors: Change Strategies, Educational Change, Educational Environment, Educational Principles, Educational Research, Educational Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education, Institutional Characteristics, Instructional Effectiveness, Literature Reviews, Organizational Change, School Effectiveness
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: North Central Regional Educational Lab., Elmhurst, IL.
Note: Paper prepared for the National Rural Education Research Forum (Lake Placid, NY, October 16-17, 1987). For the complete proceedings, see RC 016 624.