ERIC Number: ED298211
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-Oct
Reference Count: 0
The Ways that Schools Are: Lessons for Reformers.
The history of schooling is a mix of constancy and change in policies, organizational structures, school practices, and classroom pedagogy. Over the last century and a half, well-intentioned and serious reformers, using Federal, state, and local policies, tirelessly and repeatedly tried to improve schooling. Classroom and school practices such as lecturing, using textbooks, grouping by ability, and rating teachers' performance were present in the 1890s, the 1930s, and at the time that Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) became law. Understanding what is constant and what changes in American classrooms and schools is essential foreknowledge for any policymaker interested in improvement. This paper provides a historical review of classroom organization, elementary and secondary school structures, conflicting district and state goals and policies. The structure of schooling and its effect on the poor and children of color are discussed. State efforts at school improvement are reviewed. Five lessons from state and Federal improvement efforts are drawn. The goals of reformers over time are analyzed. A brief list of references is included. (BJV)
Descriptors: Disadvantaged, Educational Change, Educational Facilities Improvement, Educational Improvement, Educational Policy, Educational Practices, Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Programs, History, Individual Needs, Instruction, Minority Group Children, Policy Formation, Program Development, School Organization, State Programs
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: In: Policy Options for the Future of Compensatory Education; see UD 026 334.