ERIC Number: ED296562
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1988
Reference Count: N/A
The Development of Explicit and Implicit Forms of Memory in Learning Disabled Children.
Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Worman, Linda J.
Cognitive theorists distinguish between two forms of memory. Explicit memory, requiring the conscious reinstatement of episodic memories, is manifested on traditional tests where the student is asked to retrieve information previously learned. Implicit memory is evoked when task completion is facilitated by prior experience with a similar task. Two groups of learning disabled (LD) and two groups of nonlearning disabled students in grades 3 and 6 (N=60) were compared on a series of three tasks measuring picture memory. Results confirmed the hypothesis that significant effects of grade and subject group would be observed with the two tasks requiring explicit memory, while no differences would be observed on the implicit memory task. Significant grade and developmental differences were observed in an initial picture naming task which provided a measure of the speed with which the student is able to gain access to name codes in long-term memory. Similarly, in a follow-up task requiring free recall of as many of the pictures as possible, older children remembered a greater number than younger children, and nondisabled children remembered more items than LD children. These developmental and individual differences were eliminated in the fragment completion test, which relied on implicit memory. (JW)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A