ERIC Number: ED290572
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
The Effects of Grade Retention upon the Social and Psychological Adjustment of Elementary Children.
Cuddy, M. Elizabeth; And Others
Peer sociometrics, teacher ratings of academic performance, and self-concept scores were used to compare the social, academic, and psychological adjustment of 47 low-achieving/retained, low-achieving/promoted, and average achieving/promoted 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-grade students from two southern rural elementary schools. Because the sample was selected from participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, subjects' scores on the dependent variables were available for the year preceding and the year following the retention decisions. The two low-achieving groups were matched on sex, Year 1 grade, and Year 1 teacher-rated academic performance. These groups allowed for the comparison of the effects of retention and promotion upon the adjustment of students who were struggling academically. It was hypothesized that the overall adjustment of the average achievement group would be superior to that of the other two groups and that retention would detrimentally influence social and psychological adjustment. Findings suggested that in comparison to promotion of low-achieving students, retention does not exert a unique positive influence upon social and academic adjustment. Promotion led to greater decreases in peer-nominated rejection than did retention. It is concluded that promotion may be beneficial in decreasing the peer rejection of low-achieving students and, thus, may decrease the number dropping out of school. (RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy (21st, Boston, MA, November 1987).