ERIC Number: ED285283
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-May
Female Managers in Business and Education: Sacrifices, Stressors, and Support Systems.
Women who occupy the managerial ranks in today's world lead busy, often frustrating lives. In this study, 75 female managers in business and education were interviewed to determine their feelings about their careers, their major sources of stress, their sacrifices when entering management, the barriers they faced, and how they cope with their problems. The results led to seven conclusions. First, major stressors are lack of time, deadlines, personnel problems, and family responsibilities. Exercise, "sounding boards," and hired help for household duties reduce stress for these women. Second, sacrificing time for self and family appears to be a major problem for female managers, who need practice at managing time and prioritizing responsibilities to secure enough personal time. Third, since managerial women face sex barriers, early training for both girls and boys is needed to reduce negative stereotyping; more female executive role models will also help. Fourth, women should learn to be team players at an early age and to cooperate, collaborate, and enjoy other females' success. Female managers need specific training to cope with "horizontal violence" in female employer-employee relationships. Fifth, developing support systems and obtaining the confidence and "thrust" of sponsors and mentors is important for entering and advancing in management. Sixth, families are important support groups for managerial women. Last, career planning is desperately needed for women, considering the large number of females who would choose a different career or start earlier if given a second chance. Home and school socialization agents are vital. (MLH)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Guides - Non-Classroom; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners; Researchers
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Conference on Women and Work (4th, Arlington, TX, May 1987).