ERIC Number: ED284423
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985-Nov
Reference Count: 0
Listening and Speaking: A Cybernetic Synthesis.
Nord, James R.
Nagoya University of Commerce Bulletin, v30 p697-725 Nov 1985
Cybernetic feedback theory sees the individual as a self-organizing feedback control system that generates its own activity to control its own perceptions. Applying the principle of feedback to language use, it appears that speaking as an overt public behavior is controlled by an internally private listening capacity. With that listening capacity, the transfer to speaking is greatly enhanced, though not automatic, and without the listening capacity, spontaneous speech, internally generated, does not occur. Previous approaches had had the language teacher push the student toward speech, with the teacher in control of the environment that controls the student's behavior. The cybernetic approach has the internal language structure pulling out the performance (speech) based on built-in expectations within the language structure learned through listening guidance. The student does this when he feels ready. He is in control of his own behavior. The teacher does not correct speech errors directly but notes them for further training in careful listening. In this approach, the teacher's task is to enhance the student's perceptual capacity. This technique could revolutionize foreign language teaching. (Author/MSE)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Journal Articles
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A