ERIC Number: ED282376
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Oct
Reference Count: 0
Counseling Approaches with Retarded Persons: Current Status and an Attempt at Integration.
Spragg, Paul A.
The paper addresses issues in counseling the retarded in the context of the research literature, identifies promising trends, and proposes a counseling model. Three issues are identified: the necessity for counseling to meet measurable objectives; the need for cost effectiveness; and the need for an integrated model. After proposing a definition of counseling which focuses on behavior change, the literature is summarized on use of the psychodynamic, behavior therapy, nondirective, and directive group counseling approaches with the retarded. The research as a whole is characterized as having poor research design which renders most of the conclusions as to counseling effectiveness invalid. Current trends in treatment include social skills training, the use of social skills counseling models, self-management training, and emotional training. There is an increase in clinicians who use eclectic approaches, often associated with inadequate planning, idiosyncratic interventions, and procedures of unknown benefit. Characteristics of a useful counseling model include: (1) internal validity; (2) specific consideration of the learning characteristics of the retarded individual; (3) use of techniques validated by the experimental and applied literature; (4) use of techniques that can address concerns in behavioral, cognitive and affective areas; and (5) cost effectiveness. (DB)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Region IV Conference of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (Snowmass, CO, October 5-8, 1983).