ERIC Number: ED279079
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1986-Dec
Reference Count: 0
Instructional Factors in Effective Schools: A Review of the Research. Revised.
Stedman, Lawrence C.
This review of the effective schools literature focuses on six teaching factors: the nature of instructional materials, lower versus higher order skills, classroom reinforcement practices, teacher selection, teacher training, and individual versus whole-group instruction. Different from earlier studies, the review concentrates on specific instructional factors, involves a more comprehensive set of studies than has been previously assembled, points out which studies were methodologically flawed, and describes their errors. By identifying maverick schools and their characteristics, this review shows that there are two types of effective schools. The first (and most common) type is organized around curriculum objectives, a single textbook series, and reading and mathematics skills measured by standardized tests. The second is organized around a well-rounded liberal arts curriculum, a diverse set of materials, higher-order skills, and student development. Both types of effective schools generally pick their own teaching staffs, provide practical inservice training built into the instructional program, and use flexible small-group instruction or individualization rather than whole-group instruction. Flawed studies prevented any firm conclusions concerning the use of phonics or direct instruction. The evidence on classroom reinforcement patterns was contradictory. A nine-page bibliography is appended. (Author/IW)
Descriptors: Basic Skills, Curriculum, Elementary Secondary Education, Group Instruction, Individual Instruction, Inservice Teacher Education, Instructional Effectiveness, Instructional Materials, Instructional Program Divisions, Learning Processes, Liberal Arts, Reinforcement, School Effectiveness, School Organization, Teacher Selection, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Wisconsin Univ., Madison. School of Education.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Prepared for the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.