ERIC Number: ED277415
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1986-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Expectations, Attributions, and Achievement of College Students under Cooperative, Group Competitive, and Individualistic Goal Structures.
Warring, Douglas; Maruyama, Geoffrey
In consecutive quarters, two studies were conducted at a two-year vocational/technical college to determine how different goal structures within the learning environment could influence student expectations, achievement, and perceptions of the causes of learning outcomes. The first study investigated three goal structures (i.e., cooperative, individualistic, and cooperative with group competition), while the second added a "homogeneous group" cooperative condition. Study subjects were students from sections of a general psychology course, who were given expectation measures and individual achievement tests. In the cooperative condition, students worked in small groups during their section meetings to help prepare for exams, which were taken on individual and group bases. In the group competition condition, students similarly worked in groups, with the highest-scoring groups receiving bonus points. In the individualistic condition, students worked individually in their sections and participated in whole class discussions. In the homogeneous group condition, students selected their own small work group, as opposed to having these groups teacher-assigned. Results from the two studies provided a mixed pattern of findings. While the first study provided support for the cooperative model in terms of improved expectations and achievement, poor student performance in the second study greatly diminished the benefits of cooperation. (LAL)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Community Colleges, Comparative Analysis, Competition, Cooperation, Expectation, Group Activities, Group Instruction, Grouping (Instructional Purposes), Learning Processes, Learning Strategies, Student Motivation, Teaching Methods, Technical Institutes, Two Year Colleges
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (67th, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1986).