ERIC Number: ED275712
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1986-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Application of Cognitive Science Principles: Instructional Heuristics and Mechanisms for Use.
Montague, William E.
Cognitive science is briefly reviewed, and its implications for instructional design are discussed. The application of cognitive science to instruction requires knowledge of cognitive science, the subject content taught, and the system in which the instruction is imbedded. The central concept of cognitive science is mental representation--the description of mental entities and processes, both unconscious or automatic processes, as well as conscious problem solving and classification. Other issues which have an impact on instruction are the extent and quality of existing knowledge and self-monitoring of mental processes and structures. It is important to identify the context in which learning takes place in order to promote learning and transfer. Instructional engineering heuristics, or principles for teaching, present two challenges: (1) evaluate effectiveness of proposed principles; and (2) encourage knowledge users to learn and adapt their practices in designing and carrying out instruction. Engineering heuristics include the following: develop the correct strategy; minimize memory load; use inquiry teaching; incorporate cognitive theory into computerized tutors; recognize automatic and controlled processing skills; and teach thinking and problem-solving skills. Guidelines for vocational education involve duplication of the work environment, individualizing instruction, practice, job satisfaction, and adequate resources. The functional context approach to training emphasizes the use of materials which exist on the job and making the instruction meaningful to the user. (GDC)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (67th, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1986).