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ERIC Number: ED273573
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984-Nov
Pages: 22
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Higher Order Abilities: Written Communication.
Scardamalia, Marlene
The main focus of contemporary research in writing is on developing ideas and on the processes of planning and revision that make this possible. In the first half of this paper, the distinctive strategies used by experts and novices are elaborated. For example, novice writers depend upon having knowledge already assembled in forms ready for written presentation, while experts can bring more complex knowledge-processing procedures to bear to transform knowledge into coherent and effective form. Data from a variety of research projects and from national assessments are presented which indicate that novice strategies prevail throughout the elementary and high school years and including, in many cases, the university years. In the second half of the paper, data from research that aims to foster more expert strategies are presented. In the work reported, students are provided with explicit instruction in procedures used by experts, thus gaining knowledge about procedures that foster reflective analysis. Through the described procedures, students learn to analyze carefully and work more effectively with specific knowledge structures. A five-page list of references concludes the document. (JD)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC.
Note: Paper prepared for the American Educational Research Association Project: Research Contributions for Educational Improvement. For related documents, see ED 257 032, SP 026 402-404, and SP 026 406-411.