ERIC Number: ED272288
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1986-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Friendship Expectations and the Evaluation of Present Friendships: Effects of Reciprocity, Gender and Race.
Clark, M. L.; Ayers, Marla
The relationship between friendship expectations, assessment of present friendships, and friendship satisfaction, as well as the degree to which friends were similar on these variables were investigated for black and white adolescents. Subjects were 150 eighth-grade students from a public school in the southeastern United States. Fifty-six students were black (24 males, 32 females) and 94 were white (48 males, 46 female). Four areas of friendship expectations and friendship assessments were measured: mutual activities, conventional morality, empathic understanding, and loyalty and commitment. Friendship expectations and the assessment of present friendships were correlated with each other. Satisfaction with present friends could be predicted for females from knowledge about the level of mutual activity and empathic understanding in their present friendships, for males from their assessment of loyalty and commitment in their present friendships, for black adolescents from the rating of empathic understanding in their actual friends, and for white adolescents from the mutual activities shared with friends. Females expected and reported more conventional morality and empathic understanding from their friends than did males. Friendship dyads were formed and classified according to the level of dyad reciprocity and the gender and racial composition of the dyad. White dyads were more similar than black dyads on their friendship expectancies in the areas of conventional morality and empathic understanding. Results are discussed in terms of Bigelow and La Gaipa's theory of friendship expectations. Nineteen references and four statistical tables are included. (Author/RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (70th, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1986).