ERIC Number: ED271832
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985-Oct
Reference Count: 0
Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature on School Environments and Student Achievement. Final Report.
Stockard, Jean; Mayberry, Maralee
Theoretical traditions concerning school environments and student achievement are described, and their insights are linked with analyses of school and classroom interactions to develop a simple conceptual model of environmental influences on student achievement. The literature regarding environmental influences is then reviewed, and the last section of the paper summarizes the analysis and suggests specific areas for future research. The literature review suggests that the learning environment can enhance individual achievement somewhat, beyond the level expected given individual background traits. This enhancement occurs through altering the "non-cognitive" traits--by developing an atmosphere in which students are expected and feel able to achieve. The researchers' conceptual model provides a framework to describe these influences, divided into factors of group norms and group relationships. It is suggested that school analysts should recognize the attachments to schools that students display and acknowledge that relationships within schools are often better described with a conflict model than a consensus model. The basis of conflict needs to be determined in order to enhance achievement. The task for researchers and school officials is understanding why this resistance to officially sanctioned norms occurs and how it may be adequately addressed to promote learning. A 13-page bibliography is appended. (CJH)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Classroom Environment, Educational Environment, Elementary Secondary Education, Learning Theories, Literature Reviews, Progressive Education, Student Alienation, Student Attitudes, Student Behavior, Student Improvement, Student Motivation, Student Reaction, Student School Relationship, Teacher Student Relationship
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers; Practitioners
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center for Educational Policy and Management.