ERIC Number: ED270355
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984
Reference Count: 0
Schooling and Demand for Children: Historical Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 697 and Population and Development Series, No. 22.
Tan, Jee Peng; Haines, Michael
The schooling of children, thought to be an important factor in explaining changes in fertility over time, is examined. Theory predicts that it exerts a negative effect on parental fertility. The mechanisms by which this relationship occurs at the micro-level are elaborated by Becker in this quantity-quality trade-off model, and by Cadwell in his intergenerational transfer model. The results of empirical studies are mixed, with some studies finding positive, others negative, and still others no relationship between quantity and quality. This paper extends the existing discussion by evaluating the evidence from a historical perspective. The time-series data for 5 developed countries and 18 developing countries suggest that, prior to the attainment of primary gross enrollment ratios of about 70 or 80 percent, there appears to be little relationship between levels or change in primary school enrollments and fertility. Evidence suggests that a fairly high level of educational development, as indicated by the level of primary enrollment, seems to be important for a decline in fertility to take place. Costs and financing arrangements, and parental aspirations for children's education may be an important reason behind the observed historical relationship. Numerous tables and an 11-page bibliography are included. (RSL)
Descriptors: Attrition (Research Studies), Birth Rate, Demography, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Enrollment Projections, Enrollment Trends, Trend Analysis
Publications Sales Unit, Department T, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Note: For related documents, see SO 017 156-157, SO 017 161-162, SO 017 164, SO 017 192.