ERIC Number: ED269530
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1986-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Closing the Gap: Forty Years of Economic Progress for Blacks.
Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis R.
This report presents the findings on the long-term economic progress of American blacks. The report consists of seven sections. The first is a general introduction. Section 2 describes major changes in the racial wage gap for males from 1940 to 1980 and identifies the distribution of wage gains among important subgroups in the black population. Section 3 describes differential racial trends in schooling and the income benefits associated with education. Section 4 deals with the influence of two dimensions of geographic location: black migration to the North and the increasing urbanization of the black population. The extent to which education and place of residence "explain" trends in black-white wage ratios are summarized in Section 5. Section 6 discusses the implications of three historical developments in recent black economic history: the invention of the mechanical cotton picker, the declining workforce participation rates of low-income blacks during the 1970s, and affirmative action. The final section speculates about likely future trends in the racial wage gap. The 40-year record clearly points to a large improvement in the relative economic status of black men. Although black poverty persists, a large black middle class has emerged. The largest wage improvements were found among younger blacks and college-educated blacks. Education has helped significantly to close the income gap, particularly through the narrowing of education disparities between the races and the improved economic return to black schooling. (KH)
Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Black Education, Black Employment, Black Family, Blacks, Economic Opportunities, Economic Progress, Educational Benefits, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Geographic Location, Government Role, Labor Force Nonparticipants, Males, Racial Differences, Relocation, Role of Education, Salary Wage Differentials, Unemployment, United States History
Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138 ($10.00).
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Numerical/Quantitative Data
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Unicon Research Corp., Santa Monica, CA.; Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.