ERIC Number: ED267319
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985-Mar-25
Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.
Lynch, Sherry K.
A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of intercourse can also be depicted on a continuum from consenting sex through bribery to stranger forced rape. Date rape (acquaintance rape) can involve five types of force including making the female feel bad, pressuring for sex, refusal to take "no" for an answer, the view that sex is the male's right because of being led on, and emotional blackmail. Surveys have revealed that the frequency of date rape is high on college campuses with up to 20 percent of college women reporting that they have been raped. Underreporting of rape may be due to acceptance of violence in social settings and fear of retaliation. Counseling date rape survivors is important. The rape response includes the first acute reaction, outward adjustment, and integration or resolution. Counseling needs to address feelings of powerlessness, guilt, low self-esteem, trust, and anger. A Sexual Assault Survivors Group is beneficial for college students. Group discussions on relationships, family reactions, nightmares, self-destructive behaviors, and sexuality all help the survivors. After participation, survivors will have a new awareness of rape in society. Other college rape counseling programs focus on self-defense, assertiveness, responsible sexuality, and rape prevention. (ABL)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Counselors; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College Personnel Association (Boston, MA, March 24-27, 1985).