ERIC Number: ED265302
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Motivation Theories and Motivation Systems. The Gulf between Theory and Practice. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1937.
Managers have an obvious interest in motivation, yet there are few connections between the needs of the manager and research on motivation theory and system building. Motivation can be defined as the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviors. This definition assumes that motivation is an individual phenomenon; that it is intentional; that it involves arousal, direction, and persistence; and that it is reflected in behavior. Motivation theories include arousal theories, which mostly revolve around the needs of people, and direction theories, which include goal-setting, expectancy theory, operant conditioning, and equity theory. However, this information is often difficult for managers to put into practice. It is difficult to individualize rewards in large organizations, and it is often difficult to observe people--another motivating factor. Many jobs are interdependent and rewards cannot easily be separated. In terms of management practice, most of the answers are still awaited. There are, however, two basic questions managers should ask themselves--is motivation important for performance? and can performance be defined in behavioral terms? If the answers to these questions are yes, and if other criteria are operant, then the strategies arising from motivation theory can be put into practice. (KC)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).