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ERIC Number: ED264470
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985
Pages: 14
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
The Effects of Active Exercise versus Passive Electronic Muscle Stimulation on Self-Concept, Anxiety, and Depression.
Boyll, Jeffery R.
Although positive physiological and psychological changes may occur as a result of exercise, many people do not exercise regularly. Either different methods to ensure exercise adherence must be examined or new ways of acquiring the desired changes must be found. The effectiveness of one alternative method, electronic muscle stimulation, was examined in a group of college students. Three groups, each consisting of seven males and seven females comprised the Exercise, Electrostim, and Control groups. Subjects (N=42), all of whom reported being minimally physically active, completed pre-tests measuring self-concept, anxiety, and depression. The exercise group received a combined aerobic, anaerobic workout for 50 minutes twice a week, the electrostim group received treatments for 50 minutes twice a week, while the control group received no treatments. All subjects were post-tested using the identical measures at the end of 6 weeks. Analysis of variance of gain scores revealed a significant improvement for subjects in both the exercise and electrostim groups in self-concept (p.<.01) and anxiety (p.<.05) but not in depression. There were no differences found between males and females and neither the exercise nor electrostim programs were significantly better than the other at bringing about this change. It is concluded that either program is a viable approach to reducing anxiety and improving self-concept, with the traditional active exercise program considered the more practical approach. (NRB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A