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ERIC Number: ED264441
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985-Nov
Pages: 9
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Single-Subject, Multiple-Baseline Designs in Evaluating Adult Literacy Programs.
Askov, Eunice N.; And Others
Between-group designs constitute the experimental methods traditionally applied in the field of education. Another level of analysis, however, is commonly used in clinical psychology but seldom applied in educational settings: single-subject designs (actually applied to small groups). This design allows a researcher to evaluate the influence of an educational or clinical procedure on a subject's performance by replicating its effect with the same individual over time. One type of single-subject design, the multiple-baseline design, is becoming more popular in educational studies. In the multiple-baseline design, measures are made simultaneously on two or more behaviors, subjects, or settings in order to identify a pre-treatment (baseline) level. The baseline data describe the current level of performance and predict future performance. If each baseline changes when the intervention is introducted, the effects can be attributed to the intervention. Advantages of multiple-baseline designs include the following: (1) the multiple-baseline designs are effective means of evaluating educational procedures since they allow continuous monitoring (2) intervention is applied to only one or two baselines at a time; (3) large numbers of subjects are not needed; (4) the gradual application of the intervention permits the researcher to test its effectiveness on a small scale and make needed modifications; and (5) establishing a causal relationship does not require the withdrawal of treatment. Multiple-baseline designs may be appropriate for researching a variety of educational questions, such as evaluation of adult literacy programs. (KC)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A