ERIC Number: ED262345
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985-Aug
Reference Count: 0
A Longitudinal Approach to Building Theory for Studying Socialization.
Theories of socialization have developed independently of established facts against which to measure their adequacy. Studies showing low levels of skin conductance and slow latency of response among criminals have supported a bio-social theory that criminals inherit neurological systems that impede reduction of fear and interfere with learning. Before this theory can be accepted, several issues must be considered, including the heritability of physiological response differences, the assumption that learning requires fear, the relationship between measured autonomic system responses and the attributed emotions, and the temporal order between slow autonomic responses and punitive social experiences among criminals. Social Learning Theory asserts that socialization involves using approval as a reward and disapproval or physical pain as punishment. In contrast, the Opponent-process Theory suggests conditions under which punishment and reward operate in opposition to what has been considered their typical reinforcement valences. It is important to know how people learn to view things as rewards or punishments. Both Differential Association Theory and Labelling Theory focus on the interface between social phenomena and individual perceptions, but more research is needed to establish facts against which to test these theories. Because knowledge about the sequence of events will be crucial to understanding causal relationships, data must be gathered from longitudinal studies. (NRB)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (93rd, Los Angeles, CA, August 23-27, 1985).