ERIC Number: ED262318
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
An Information Theory Analysis of Interviews by Ellis and Rogers.
Lichtenberg, James W.; Tyndall, Larry W.
Research on communication in counseling has identified/defined counselor communication behaviors which may affect client response and change. To further understand the pattern of interaction between counselor and client, transcripts of four initial interviews by Albert Ellis and two by Carl Rogers were analyzed for the pattern of responding within each unique dyad. The verbal utterances of counselor and client were coded by two independent judges for personal, descriptive, cognitive, or directive communication modes. Using Shannon and Weaver's (1949) mathematical theory of commnication, each interview was analyzed first for the pattern of the four communication modes regardless of the speaker, and second for the pattern of communication acknowledging the speaker. Response data without the speaker revealed consistent third-order redundancy, suggesting various communication modes were controlled by the preceding two responses. Analysis of response modes crossed with the speaker showed second-order redundancy, or response modes controlled by the other's preceding response. The ambiguity of both the counselor's and the client's responses was somewhat greater within Rogers' interviews, suggesting slightly more freedom of response. The results may reflect Ellis' rather directive style of counseling or the structuring provided by counselors in initial encounters with clients. (MCF)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A