ERIC Number: ED262059
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1984-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
Developmental Changes in the Access of Referential and Associative Information by Pictures and Words. Research Bulletin #9.
Marschark, Marc; Carroll, Elizabeth
Three experiments examined referential and associative linkages in memory as a function of stimulus and response material formats. Second grade, sixth grade, and university students were the subjects. In Experiment 1, subjects pointed to either the picture or printed name of a stimulus corresponding to the name or picture, respectively, pointed to by the experimenter. In Experiment 2, the same subjects pointed to pictures or words uniquely identified by a verbal description read by the experimenter. Examination of the response times from these two experiments revealed that while referential links between picture and word representations of a concept become symmetrical by adulthood, associative links maintain a picture-response superiority. The latter finding was also obtained in Experiment 3, in which subjects pointed to picture or word response items in the same superordinate category as stimuli pointed to by the experimenter. (Implications for the development of verbal-to-imaginal and imaginal-to-verbal transformation abilities are discussed). (Author/GDC)
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Age Differences, Association (Psychology), Cognitive Development, Cognitive Style, Elementary Education, Encoding (Psychology), Higher Education, Imagination, Pictorial Stimuli, Reaction Time, Recall (Psychology), Test Format, Verbal Stimuli, Visualization, Word Recognition
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Authoring Institution: North Carolina Univ., Greensboro. Dept. of Psychology.