ERIC Number: ED261845
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Oct
Reference Count: 0
Rural Special Education: A Challenge for the System.
Knox, Stanley C.
In an effort to gather information on the status of special education programs in rural areas, visits were made to 33 school districts in 14 states representing 4 different administrative organizations (intermediate school districts, cooperatives, county systems, single districts) and 5 geographical regions. School populations ranged from 850 to 19,600. The percentage of handicapped students served ranged from 5.6% to 18.6%, paralleling national figures. Personnel problems were of major significance. Concerns focused on certification requirements, insensitivity of university training programs to rural needs, and lack of resources for systematic staff development. Programs for severely retarded students in rural schools were numerous but many functioned with problems in early intervention, age-appropriateness and least restrictive environment, curriculum and instruction, and leadership. Nearly one-half of the agencies had no early childhood programs. About one-third of the agencies had well-defined vocational education programs; frequency was highest in the single districts and decreased as the level of cooperation increased. State funding for programs was not consistent. The most frequently cited positive characteristics of state agencies were in the areas of technical assistance and staff development. In terms of availability of service options and scope of programs, the intermediate unit surfaced as an effective method for providing services. (NEC)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Delivery Systems, Disabilities, Educational Administration, Educational Assessment, Educational Needs, Elementary Secondary Education, Program Content, Rural Education, School Surveys, Small Schools, Special Education, Staff Development, State Programs, Teacher Certification, Teacher Education
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners; Researchers; Policymakers
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the National Conference on Building Partnerships for Quality Education in Rural America (Washington, DC, June 28-30, 1984).