ERIC Number: ED261351
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Dec
The History of Computers and Their Use in Education.
Singer, Harry; Phelps, Patricia
Intended for educators at all levels, this paper traces the development of the computer from its beginnings to the present and discusses how computers can best be used in education. The first section of the paper describes major developments in the history of the computer, including the machine invented by W. Schickard and the computer constructed by B. Pascal in 1642 to complete mathematical functions; the "Leibniz Wheel," devised by G. W. Leibniz in 1673; the various inventions of G. Babbage in the 1800s; the early digital computers developed in the 1930s and 1940s; the construction of the Electronic Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), which led to a number of advances in computer technology; and the technological breakthroughs that led to the development of minicomputers and microcomputers. The second section of the paper, based on a review of recent computer-related research, traces the growth of computer use in education. Research examined in this section is organized into six categories: (1) computer assisted instruction, (2) attitudes towards computers, (3) computer testing, (4) computer managed instruction, (5) cost effectiveness, and (6) computer literacy. The paper concludes with a series of questions educators need to ask about computer use, noting that the answers can lead them to realize that the computer can--and is likely to--cause a dramatic change in teaching and learning. (FL)
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Literacy, Computers, Educational Development, Educational History, Educational Philosophy, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Futures (of Society), Higher Education, Intellectual History, Inventions, Teaching Methods, Technological Advancement
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (32nd, Clearwater, FL, December 4-6, 1982).