ERIC Number: ED260820
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Memory in the Elementary School Classroom: How Teachers Encourage Strategy Use.
Hart, Silvia S.; And Others
Little is known about how teachers encourage memory activity and strategy use in children. In order to gain such information, 69 teachers of grades K through 6 were observed in five 30-minute periods. A total of 292 strategy suggestions and 15 instances in which the teacher attempted to suppress spontaneous strategy use were observed. Teachers averaged 4.23 category suggestions, with 10 percent of the teachers producing no such suggestions. Narrative descriptions of strategy suggestions were classified reliably into 12 category types, ranging from rote memorization to various elaboration strategies and metamemory suggestions. Strategies mentioned were generally appropriate for grade level and subject matter. Teachers at grades 2 and 3 suggested strategies more often than did other teachers. Suggestions regarding the use of several kinds of external aids in study varied appropriately with grade level. Teachers were increasingly likely at higher grades to accompany a strategy suggestion with a rationale about the value of the strategy in facilitating memory and task performance. They rarely attempted to suppress children's spontaneous strategies. When they did, it was usually in conjunction with a suggestion for the use of some alternative strategy. Definitions of categories used in classroom observations and a descriptive classification of the 12 strategy suggestions used by teachers are provided. (Author/RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A