ERIC Number: ED258808
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985
Reference Count: 0
Mathematical and Scientific Knowledge: An Overview.
Resnick, Lauren B.; Gelman, Rochel
Most of the research on mathematical and scientific thinking has been concerned with uncovering knowledge structures and reasoning processes in people of different levels of competence. How these structures and processes are acquired has only recently become a major concern. Thus, some of the major research on mathematical and scientific thinking is reviewed, giving particular attention to work that sheds light on the processes of learning and development. Three areas of research are addressed: (1) the role of organizing schemata or structures in scientific and mathematical thinking; (2) the spontaneous construction or application of theories (considering investigations involving simple addition and subtraction); and (3) implicit understanding expressed as the invention of procedures. The research examined indicates that the kinds of schemata people have made differences in their methods and levels of success in problem-solving. In addition, the schemata of experts may either be refinement of the schemata of novices in the same domain, or the schemata between novices and experts may be in direct conflict. Other research suggests that attention should be addressed to the processes learners use to construct spontaneous theories. These theories, because they are often "wrong," must be constructed by the learners themselves. (JN)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Learning Research and Development Center.
Note: Reprinted from "Issues in Cognition: Proceedings of a Joint Conference in Psychology."