ERIC Number: ED258321
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Jul-1
Increasing Personal and Organizational Effectiveness. Treatise No. 6: "Promoting the Organization."
New Mexico Research and Study Council, Albuquerque.
Understanding motivation is central to effective use of human resources. Cognitive and noncognitive theories have been developed to explain motivation. Cognitive theorists, including Maslow, argue that a person's behavior can be predicted when that person's internal needs, values, and feelings are understood. Noncognitive theorists consider conditioning a critical factor in behavior, citing externally provided rewards and punishments as primary motivating forces. No single theory incorporating all the variables in the workplace has been developed to explain behavior within organizations, though it is clear that the satisfaction of needs and the characteristics of reward systems, technologies, leadership styles, and job designs affect motivation in the workplace. Management attitudes toward human behavior often determine the nature of these organizational variables. The attitude that people are inherently opposed to work and must be controlled has been shown by research to foster management systems that are less effective than those based on the attitude that people seek responsibility and function best when left free to work toward their own objectives. Whatever attitude or theory is espoused, administrators who know and understand the organizational variables that affect motivation will have a greater range of effective management tools available. (PGD)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Administrators; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: New Mexico Research and Study Council, Albuquerque.
Note: For related documents, see EA 017 754-758.