ERIC Number: ED258105
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985-Apr
Self-Efficacy Expectancy and Depression: An Investigation of Causal Relationships.
Stanley, Melinda A.; Maddux, James E.
Research suggests that depression is associated with low self-efficacy expectancies and that enhancement of self-efficacy expectancies may be effective in the relief of depressive symptoms. To examine the causal relationships between self-efficacy expectancies for interpersonal skills and depressed mood, two independent experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 30 female undergraduates were led to believe that a social interaction task they would later perform was either within (high self-efficacy) or beyond (low self-efficacy) their abilities. Subjects completed the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist (MAACL) before and after the manipulation, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to screen out depressed individuals, and a speed-writing task. The results showed that low self-efficacy expectancies produced greater depressed mood than high self-efficacy expectancies. In the second experiment, 30 different female undergraduates followed the same procedures as in experiment 1, with the addition of a procedure that induced a temporary depressed or elated mood. Results showed that a depressed mood produced lower self-efficacy expectancies than an elated mood. These findings indicate that under some conditions changes in judgments of one's ability to perform a behavior can lead to changes in the degree of depression. (KGB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A