ERIC Number: ED256482
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
A Developmental Study of Student Perceptions of School Grading.
Evans, Ellis D.; Engelberg, Ruth A.
Three dimensions of school children's viewpoints on grades were examined in a developmental framework: (1) sentiment and attitudes about being graded, (2) causal perceptions and attributions about why students get good grades; and (3) comprehension of simple and complex grading systems. A total of 293 boys and girls drawn from fourth through eleventh grades responded to a theoretically derived questionnaire developed for the study. Findings supported a cognitive-developmental progression in the acquisition of grading concepts. Older and higher-achieving students understood grading constructs better than younger and lower-achieving students. Student attitudes about grades also followed a developmental course. Dissatisfaction and cynicism related to grading practices increased with age, as did ratings of the self-importance of grades. Attributional scores partially supported predictions from social-learning theory and research. Younger students and low achievers were more likely to attribute grades to external and uncontrollable factors, while high achievers and older students attributed grades to internal and controllable factors. Contrary to prediction, males made more external attributions and females made more internal attributions. Although effort attributions increased with age, ability attributions remained unchanged across grade levels. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental and social-learning theory, implications for school practice, and future research. (Author/RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A