ERIC Number: ED256328
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Feedback: Implications for Further Research and Study.
Nishikawa, Sue S.
This report reviews current literature on feedback and suggests practical implications of feedback research for educators. A definition of feedback is offered, and past definitions in prior research are noted. An analysis of the current state of knowledge of feedback discusses the historical development of feedback theory and suggests that disagreements have not been on the external manifestations of the theories expounded by Descartes, Thorndike, Watson, or Skinner, but in their teleology. Also discussed is the importance of the immediacy of feedback, delayed information feedback, and other variables affecting feedback. Conclusions suggest that feedback is a complex process which can no longer be adequately described within the parameters of the traditionally held Stimulus-Response (S-R) paradigm, nor can it be said that "immediate" feedback must be given, or that delayed feedback is more effective in learning. It is proposed that feedback must be viewed as knowledge of response affected by variables within the individual and in the environment, and that research should be conducted by comparing different methods of feedback with the same students and the same subject matter. Fifty-two references are listed. (LMM)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Anaheim, CA, January 17-23, 1985). For entire proceedings, see IR 011 621. Several pages contain light type.