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ERIC Number: ED255931
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985-Mar
Pages: 8
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Speaking, Writing, and the Making of Meaning.
Ward, Jay A.
By investigating the similarities and differences between speech and writing, teachers can help students mature as writers. The difference between speech and writing in conveying meaning is explained by the degree of context dependence of the utterance or passage. Speech is highly context-dependent because a speaker depends on a listener to assist in filling in meaning while writing must provide its own context, audience, and explicit meaning. Writing problems may reflect a student's effort to apply inappropriate oral language habits to writing. The writing instructor's task is to move students from the high context-dependence of speech to the relative context-independence of writing. Because of the differences between speech and writing, some inferences can be made to help students achieve context-independence in their writing. Instructors should (1) see speaking and writing as developmentally and functionally complementary, (2) devote time to requesting clarification or elaboration of ideas, (3) provide inexperienced writers with activities in which the form and function of speech and writing are made as similar as possible, (4) recognize that making meaning is more important and should precede developing grammatical context, and (5) realize that some qualities desirable in speech, such as consistency in voice and tone, are desirable in writing. (EL)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A