ERIC Number: ED252753
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Mar
Reference Count: 0
The Management of Self-Interest: Phenomenology and Staff Motivation. Coombe Lodge Working Paper: Information Bank Number 1634. Revised.
Theorists have named environmental forces, organizational structure, group interaction, individual needs, or some combination of these factors in accounting for organizational behavior. Phenomenology argues that organizations do not exist apart from the people of whom they are composed; in this view their private perceptions and personal self-interests account for member actions. Exchange theory, an extension of the phenomenological approach, suggests that when people engage in social activity with the expectation of reward, interaction tends to involve reciprocal exchanges. Power is, therefore, the ability of persons with unilateral control over resources to require compliance from their exchange partners. Another attempt to explain human motivation has been Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1943). Maslow suggests that there is a natural ordering of needs, and that lower level needs tend to take precedence, but, once satisfied, give way to the urgings of higher level needs. Education as a profession has had suggestions for teacher motivation which include profit sharing, reduction in teaching duties, power sharing, and inservice training and staff development. Motivation may also be addressed in terms of what the manager is capable of withholding, information control, pressure, and flattery. These approaches represent what is sometimes described as "manipulation" as distinct from "motivation." With so little in the way of formal and agreed appraisal arrangements for evaluating teacher performance, the pull for the manager/manipulator may be in the direction of overt compliance rather than demonstrably successful achievement. (LLL)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).