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ERIC Number: ED249809
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1984-Oct
Pages: 10
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Negotiation, Strategies, and Whose Fault Was It Anyway?
Shaw, A. M.; Emilsson, Elin
MEXTESOL Journal, v8 n3 p24-32 Oct 1984
Negotiation can be used systematically in a communicative language teaching methodology that allows students to participate in decisions about what to learn, in what order, and how to adjust the learning process and materials to their own learning styles and particular problems. The teacher's role becomes that of manager or informant-model. Even in curricula that are rigidly prescribed there is room for negotiation, which can include any of these elements: exploring students' needs and wishes, discussing objectives, varying the order of objectives, discussing and seeking solutions to student problems with specific types of curriculum elements, discussing classroom organization, and discussing approaches to an activity. Negotiation can be preparatory, reflective, or spontaneous, and it is accomplished by cooperation, not confrontation. A classroom decision-making procedure should be agreed upon and majority opinions respected within that framework. Some techniques for using negotiation include a workshop at the semester beginning to bring about changes in student attitudes, use of a student spokesman to represent the class in communicating with the teacher, small group discussions of problems, and discussion based on teacher's notes of student problems. Pitfalls include student overzealousness, unreasonably high student expectation, individual student domination of the process, and teacher misunderstanding of negotiation. (MSE)
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher; Journal Articles; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A