ERIC Number: ED249475
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984
Reference Count: 0
Literacy Instruction in American Schools: Problems and Perspectives.
Langer, Judith A.
Recent studies of reading and writing instruction suggest that literacy instruction is easily distorted, incorporating measures of achievement that do not reflect students' mastery of the process of understanding, reading materials that are ill-structured and divorced from any real communicative intent, and exercises in subskill learning that remain divorced from the intended achievements. An alternative model of literacy learning, based on the notion of instructional scaffolding, offers five characterstics of interaction that are critical to the success of activities in classrooms. These characteristics suggest that (1) the instructional task permits students to make their own contribution to the activity as it evolves, thus allowing them to have a sense of ownership of their work; (2) the instructional task grows out of knowledge and skills the students already have, but poses problems that cannot be solved without further help; (3) direct instruction in the form of questioning, modeling, or constructive dialogue helps the student develop a successful approach to the task; (4) the teacher's role in the instructional event is collaborative rather than evaluative; and (5) over time, instruction changes in response to the student's internalization of the patterns and approaches practiced with the teacher's assistance. (HOD)
Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Theories, Elementary Secondary Education, Learning Strategies, Literacy, Literature Reviews, Models, Problems, Reading Instruction, Reading Research, Scaffolding (Teaching Technique), Teacher Effectiveness, Teaching Methods, Writing Instruction, Writing Research
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Guides - Classroom - Teacher; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A