ERIC Number: ED248464
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1984-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Reading and Writing: How Are the First Two "R's" Related? Reading Education Report No. 51.
Rubin, Andee; Hansen, Jane
Education has often created and widened the distinctions between reading and writing rather than focusing on their relationship. More recently, however, research has advanced a view that recognizes reading and writing to be instances of communication between people. Research also suggests that five kinds of knowledge (informational, structural, transactional, aesthetic, and process) are critical to expertise in both reading and writing. For example, when readers compose messages, they need both the text and information of their own. When writers compose messages they begin with information and use text to convey it. Revision in both reading and writing focuses on information. Structural knowledge comprises knowledge of discourse structure and writing formulas. Writers produce texts with structure; readers use the structure when they construct meaning. Transactional knowledge relates primarily to the conceptualization of texts as a medium of communication between author and reader. In reading, such knowledge leads to investigating and questioning the author's purpose and even style. Aesthetic awareness, or the artistic side of language--its sound and rhythm--also constitutes a strong link between reading and writing. Finally, since both reading and writing are complex, awareness of the process by which knowledge is combined aids proficiency in both areas. Thus, since reading and writing do facilitate one another, they should be taught as related processes, with classroom contexts taking advantage of the communicative nature of reading and writing. (HOD)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.