ERIC Number: ED247033
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984
The Academic and Social Consequences of Grade Retention: A Convergent Analysis.
Plummer, Diane L.; And Others
The subject of grade retention has generated substantial theoretical, empirical, and practical attention for almost a century. However, few conclusive statements regarding this widespread practice can be made, and the literature has generated mixed results. Reviews of the literature prompt many questions: Does retaining a child in grade increase subsequent academic performance? What are children's perceptions of retained peers? Do retained children have expectations different from those of their nonretained counterparts about performance, school, and teachers? and, Is children's self-esteem affected by grade retention? The first section of this discussion summarizes available data about effects of grade retention on children's academic performance. The second section presents information about the social behaviors of children who have been retained, including information on how perceptions of others can influence children's school performance and interaction with peers. The third section summarizes data regarding effects of grade retention on children's self-esteem. The fourth section offers suggestions for future research, concluding that grade retention can be beneficial if certain conditions are met. Such conditions concern selection for retention, time of implementation, assessment of academic progress, and emotional support. (RH)
Publication Type: ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.
Note: To be published as a chapter in "Current Topics in Childhood Education," Volume VI, 1985 (est.), Ablex Publishing Corporation, Norwood, NJ., Lilian G. Katz, Editor.