ERIC Number: ED244722
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1980-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
Lessons about Federal Implementation.
Yin, Robert K.
Project Follow Through involved a diverse and major set of implementation problems: (1) The initial program mandate for an action program clashed with the later switch to an experimental focus; (2) The selection of curriculum rather than structural changes as the major intervention led to greater uncertainty regarding the practices to be installed; (3) Collaboration with local districts required compromises between local and federal priorities; and (4) The installation of new practices in specific schools and classrooms followed an unclear path. For the purpose of classifying this array of problems, the macro- and micro-implementation distinction appears inadequate as an analytical tool. A more elaborate framework seems necessary for understanding or monitoring an implementation process of the Follow Through type. A five-phase model of implementation, in which the emphasis is on variable sequences and emergent phenomena, seems advised. Such an implementation process would involve policy development, program development, project design, practice adoption, and practice implementation phases. Intensive inquiry into all five phases of this model must be conducted to fully analyze the implementation process. Further, at each phase, analytical concern must focus on four general criteria: sound management, fidelity to original intentions, elaboration of vaguely stated objectives into operational practices, and reduction of internal contradictions. While political or administrative realities may restrict changes in program implementation, monitoring should enable more accurate anticipation of likely program outcomes. (RH)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Policymakers; Researchers
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A