ERIC Number: ED243216
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1981-Sep
Reference Count: N/A
The Literature on Social Promotion versus Retention.
Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.
This general review of the relative merits of social promotion and retention examines research on the benefits of each, describes current strategies for resolving the policy dilemma involved, and considers issues raised by abolishing social promotion and establishing remedial programs. A summary of the history of the widespread adoption of the social promotion policy precedes a literature review outlining arguments against both social promotion and retention. The review then describes studies indicating that retention appears to have a beneficial effect on elementary school students and that the self-concepts of promoted and retained elementary students are virtually the same. Some new approaches to the problem are offered in the following section, which presents guidelines for selecting children for retention, lists strategies for individualizing instruction, describes one widely publicized example of a district that abolished social promotion and reorganized its schools, and reports the experience of a teacher who decided not to follow her school's social promotion policy. A final section considers competency based education, financial concerns, and legal implications. The paper concludes that while competency testing and remedial programs are expensive and often controversial, schools appear to feel that they are serving students better through such policies. A bibliography is appended. (Author/MJL)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Competency Based Education, Cost Estimates, Elementary Secondary Education, Grade Repetition, Public Schools, Remedial Programs, School Administration, School Effectiveness, School Law, School Policy, Self Concept, Social Promotion, Student Development, Student Evaluation, Student Promotion
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Administrators; Policymakers; Practitioners; Teachers
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.