ERIC Number: ED243004
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1983-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Short-Term Longitudinal Changes in Memory, Intelligence and Perceived Competence in Older Adults.
Gilewski, Michael J.; Schaie, K. Warner
Previous research on intelligence and aging has relied on tests developed for younger adults, which often incorporate many factors that could impede optimal performance in elderly populations. To investigate short-term longitudinal changes in memory, intelligence, and perceived competence in everyday situations among older adults, 227 adults were tested. Seventy-four subjects were middle-aged (55-64, MA), 95 were young-old (65-74, YO), and 58 were old-old (75-84, OO) They completed the Adult Mental Abilities test battery, three word-list tasks and a paragraph task, and the Q-Sort (Scheidt and Schaie, 1978). The tests were administered twice, with a 3-year interval. An analysis of the results showed that in general the MA group scored highest on all measures, while the OO group scored lowest. Sex differences were found for the three word-list tasks, with women remembering more than men. For the spatial tests, men performed better than women. For the time of measurement effects, scores for immediate and delayed recall were significantly higher in the second administration, while word series skills decreased over the time span. Recognizing vocabulary decreased with time for the YO group. Spatial test performance increased over time for the MA group and decreased for the OO group. The YO group performance decreased significantly only for object rotation. For the social dimension, perceived competence increased across all age groups. The MA group rated themselves as active and uncommon, while the OO group rated themselves as passive and common. Women rated themselves as more competent than men in social, common, and supportive situations; men rated themselves as more competent than women in nonsocial, uncommon, and depriving situations. Overall, perceived competence correlated with changes in memory and intellectual abilities. (BL)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Authoring Institution: University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center.