ERIC Number: ED238831
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1983-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Highlights from Research on Staff Development for Effective Teaching.
Sparks, Georgea Mohlman
Educational Leadership, v41 n3 p71 Nov 1983
THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Studies comparing various models or processes of staff development are rare. While it is not possible to state conclusively that one inservice design is superior to another, we can put together the many pieces of research reviewed here to make some general recommendations about staff development programs for more effective teaching. 1. Select content that has been verified by research to improve student achievement. 2. Create a context of acceptance by involving teachers in decision making and providing both logistical and psychological administrative support. 3. Conduct training sessions (more than one) two or three weeks apart. 4. Include presentation, demonstration, practice, and feedback as workshop activities. 5. During training sessions, provide opportunities for small-group discussions of the application of new practices and sharing of ideas and concerns about effective instruction. 6. Between workshops, encourage teachers to visit each others' classrooms, preferably with a simple, objective, student-centered observation instrument. Provide opportunities for discussions of the observation. 7. Develop in teachers a philosophical acceptance of the new practices by presenting research and a rationale for the effectiveness of the techniques. Allow teachers to express doubts about or objections to the recommended methods in the small group. Let the other teachers convince the resisting teacher of the usefulness of the practices through "testimonies" of their use and effectiveness. 8. Lower teachers' perception of the cost of adopting a new practice through detailed discussions of the "nuts and bolts" of using the technique and teacher sharing of experiences with the technique. 9. Help teachers grow in their self-confidence and competence through encouraging them to try only one or two new practices after each workshop. Diagnosis of teacher strengths and weaknesses can help the trainer suggest changes that are likely to be successful--and, thus, reinforce future efforts to change. 10. For teaching practices that require very complex thinking skills, plan to take more time, provide more practice, and consider activities that develop conceptual flexibility. (Author)
Descriptors: Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Guidelines, Inservice Teacher Education, Literature Reviews, Program Development, Staff Development, Teacher Education Programs, Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Improvement
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 225 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314.
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Journal Articles
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A