ERIC Number: ED233886
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1983-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
Toward Theory-Based Instruction in Scientific Problem Solving.
Heller, Joan I.; And Others
Several empirical and theoretical analyses related to scientific problem-solving are reviewed, including: detailed studies of individuals at different levels of expertise, and computer models simulating some aspects of human information processing during problem solving. Analysis of these studies has revealed many facets about the nature of the knowledge required for solving problems in complex subject-matter domains. In addition, the analyses have provided detailed descriptions of the performance of problem solvers at "novice" and "expert" levels. Although these descriptive analyses are intended to document and explain naturally occurring performance, a prescriptive approach could be used to identify effective problem-solving methods that might be "prescribed" to students. The nature of and major steps in such a prescriptive model and results of empirical tests of the model are discussed. Steps include specification of applicability, formulation of a model of good performance, elaboration of the model, measures to ensure implementability, and controlled experiments. Relevance of the model as well as instructional implications (reasonable conclusions about both what to teach and how that information should be taught) are addressed. Making tacit processes explicit, getting students to talk about processes, providing guiding practice, understanding/reasoning processes are among the strategies suggested. (JN)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: California Univ., Berkeley.