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ERIC Number: ED233292
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Apr
Reference Count: 0
A Spiral-Ecological Approach to Supervision (SEAS).
Cooper, Stewart E.
This paper presents a new spiral-ecological approach to counselor supervision, founded on the basis of a collaborative and facilitative relationship aimed at the promotion of skills acquisition, cognitive development, and personal growth. A brief review of the literature summarizes trainee, site, and supervisor factors that influence training programs, as well as goals and methods of supervision. Four principles of an ideal model of supervision are outlined: (1) responsivity (inclusion of trainee in outcome and evaluation); (2) a systems viewpoint (regard for trainee, site, and supervision factors); (3) a process orientation (helping trainees develop their own approaches to assessment, intervention, evaluation); and (4) spiral cycling (allowing for continual feedback and modification of techniques, responding to the development and changing objectives of the supervisor). The Spiral-Ecological Approach (SEAS) is described as using three processes: needs assessment; delivery of services, i.e., use of a variety of supervision techniques based on the results of the needs assessment; and evaluation, which includes two processes, informal and formal, both of which are formatively focused. Applications of the SEAS are possible for differing levels of counselor skill in a wide variety of settings. (JAC)
Publication Type: Reports - General; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association (67th, Montreal, Canada, April 11-14, 1983).