ERIC Number: ED232827
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1978
Reference Count: N/A
Formal Education, Non-Formal Education, and Expanded Conceptions of Development. Occasional Paper #1.
Brembeck, Cole S.
Reassessment of conventional development conceptions and practice has raised questions about relevance of education to expanded theories of economic development. Previously accepted concepts of development have focused on increased economic productivity, and have assumed a causal connection between the existence of schools and the pace of development. Formal schooling has had three objectives: modernization, manpower training, and development of a professional class. Emphasis has been on schooling, but not necessarily on education. Formal schools are detached from indigenous practice, may be more suited to teaching than to learning, are limited in learning methods they can employ, and depend largely on deferred rewards; schooling usually precedes employment. Formal schooling increasingly seems unrelated to comprehensive views of development, does not reach people when and where they need it, produces educated unemployed, and is costly. Expanded conceptions of development, with humane rather than technical emphases, have different educational emphases: human need, equity, employment opportunities, low per capita/instructional unit cost, limited duration, and recognition of learner's aspirations. Both formal and non-formal education can contribute. Immediate ways to take action involve: creating comprehensive national education policies; combining formal and non-formal education; working with agencies which sponsor non-formal education programs; and conducting research to strengthen non-formal education programs. (MH)
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Educational Attitudes, Educational Benefits, Educational Change, Educational Objectives, Human Capital, Learning Experience, Nonformal Education, Teaching Methods
NFE Information Center, Michigan State University, 237 Erickson Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (while supply lasts).
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Non-Formal Education Information Center.