ERIC Number: ED230028
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983
Reference Count: 0
How Older Dogs Learn: Adults and Language Learning.
Lueers, Nancy M.; And Others
This review of research considers both the similarities and differences between adult learners and learners who are children, and applies the findings to second language instruction. First, similarities between children and adults have to do with involving as many senses as possible in learning, allowing for emotional involvement of learners, utilizing verbal and pictorial information, and adapting teaching to different learning styles. However, as learners develop from childhood to adulthood, qualitative differences appear, requiring qualitatively different teaching techniques. Some of these differences are the following: (1) increasing individual differences in learning and goal objectives; (2) increasing specificity of motivational resources and allocation of those resources to tasks that are perceived to be useful to the individual; (3) cognitive differences due to large stores of knowledge and experience and increasing complexity of mental schemata, and a slowing of mental tempo; (4) a change in the nature of the instructor-learner relationship, with the instructor becoming a facilitator of learning; and (5) the importance of non-cognitive factors, such as anxiety. Each of these adult characteristics requires some adjustment in the language class with regard to method, classroom techniques, and course content. (AMH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (17th, Toronto, Ontario, March 15-17, 1983).